APA Referencing Essentials

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Key Terms

Quoting – using the author’s exact words. You must present this as a quote using double quotation marks and provide correct in-text referencing (author, year, page number). Quotes should not comprise more than 10% of your citations.

Paraphrasing – using your own words to restate the author’s ideas. You must provide correct in-text referencing (author, year).

Summarising – a description of a publication’s main ideas. You must provide correct in-text referencing (author, year).

In-Text Citations

There are two ways of providing an in-text citation: author first and information first.

Primary Sources

OptionsQuotationParaphrase
Author firstCrystal (2003) states that “English is a global language” (p. 2). Crystal (2003) argues that English is used worldwide.
Information first“English is a global language” (Crystal, 2003, p. 2).English is used worldwide (Crystal, 2003).

Secondary Sources

OptionsQuotationParaphrase
Author firstCrystal (2003) states that “English is a global language” (as cited in Hale & Basides (2013, p. 6) Crystal (2003) argues that English is used worldwide (as cited in Hale & Basides, 2013).
Information first“English is a global language” (Crystal, 2003, as cited in Hale & Basides, 2013, p. 6).English is used worldwide (Crystal, 2003, as cited in Hale & Basides, 2013).

Reference List

Book, one authorMurphy, E. (2007). Essay writing made simple. Sydney, Australia: Pearson Education.
Book, 2 authorsHale, A., & Basides, H. (2013). The keys to academic English. Melbourne, Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.
Book, 3-5 authorsBoulton, A., Carter-Thomas, S., & Rowley-Jolivet, E. (2012). Corpus-Informed Research and Learning in ESP: Issues and Applications. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.
In text:
First citation: Boulton, Carter-Thomas and Rowley-Jolivet (2012)…. Subsequent citations: Boulton et al. (2012) or (Boulton et al., 2012)
For more than six authors, use et al., from the first citation.
Chapter in an edited book Staggenborg, S. (2002). The “meso” in social movement research. In D. S. Meyer, N. Whittier, & B. Robnett (Eds.), (2002). Social movements: Identity, culture and the state (pp. 124-139). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Cite the author of the chapter (Staggenborg), not the editors.
Edition of bookCrystal, D. (2003). English as a global language (2nd ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Ebook (with doi)McClain, M., & Roth. J. D. (1999). Schaum's quick guide to writing great essays. doi:10.1036/ 0070471703
Ebook (without doi)Race, D. (2002). Learning disability: A social approach. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Chapter in an edited ebookSoriano-Ferrer, M., & Morte-Soriano, M. R. (2017). Developmental dyslexia in Spain. In C. S. Ryan (Ed.), Learning disabilities: An international perspective (pp. 45-60). Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/books/learning-disabilities-an-international-perspective
Cite the authors of the chapter (Soriano-Ferrer & Morte-Soriano), not the editor.
Edition of ebookTarrow, S. G. (2011). Power in movement: Social movement and contentious politics (3rd ed.). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Internet journal (with doi)Chan, E., & Sengupta, J. (2010). Insincere flattery actually works: A dual attitudes perspective. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(1), 122-133. doi:10.1509/jmkr.47.1.122
Note: The volume number is in italics, issue number in brackets but not in italics followed by page numbers of the article.
Internet journal (without doi)Gale, N. K. (2011). From body-talk to body-stories: Body work in complementary and alternative medicine. Sociology of Health & Illness, 33, 237. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2010.01291.x
Article – online reference workGestational diabetes mellitus. (2012). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/gestational-diabetes-mellitus
Article – electronic drug guideJenkins, A. J., & Valentine, J. L. (2012). Antimicrobial drugs. In A. Mozayani, & L. Raymon (Eds.), Handbook of drug interactions: A clinical and forensic guide (pp. 385-411). doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-222-9_10
In text: Cite the author of the chapter (Jenkins & Valentine), not the editors.
WebpageChinese Medicine Board of Australia. (2014, March 17). Code of conduct. Retrieved from https://www.chinesemedicineboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines/Code-of-conduct.aspx
Note: Include the month and day only for the reference list.
In text: Only include the year (Chinese Medicine Board of Australia, 2014)
Video file – YouTubeMonash University Library. (2014, November 23). A new nation goes to war [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/5D9MQ1KEU98
Note: Include the month and day only for the reference list.
In text: Only include the year (Monash University Library, 2014)
DVDAmerican Psychological Association. (Producer). (2002). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Washington, DC: Author.

For a more comprehensive guide, please go to this link: https://cpfs.moodle.com.au/file.php/1/Documents/guides/ECU%20Referencing%20Guide.pdf (Edith Cowan University Referencing Guide)