July 23, 2019
|Level||Year 3, Semester 2|
|Unit Weighting||Unit Credit Points: 10 credit points
Total Course Credit Points: 320 credit points
|Student Workload||Number of timetabled hours per week: 9 (including 5 hours clinical practice)
Number of personal study hours per week: 1
Total workload hours per week: 10
|Prerequisites||ACU302 TCM Practice 2 (Acupuncture Techniques); CCM303 TCM Internal Medicine; CCM314 TCM Traumatology|
|Description||This unit is about Wen Bing Xue theory and TCM Practice 3 (Herbal Dispensary) and includes 100 hours of supervised clinical practice as a Level 3 ‘Clinic Assistant’.
Wen Bing Xue introduces students to the classical texts of Wen Bing Xue which involves the study of diseases due to warm pathogens. The study of Wen Bing Xue begins with the philosophical and theoretical foundations for the diagnosis and treatment of Wen Bing (diseases due to warm pathogens) and covers the historical development of its theories. Attention is focused on its contribution to CM’s treatment framework, its contraindication and cautions, strengths and limitations from the perspective of contemporary practice. The unit explores the characteristics of the four phases (Wei; Qi; Ying; and Xue) and the San Jiao classifications of Wen Bing including the diagnostic and treatment methods used in its management. The treatment of specific Wen Bing diseases including their aetiology, differentiation of symptoms, treatment principles and formulae are also discussed.
TCM Practice 3 (Herbal Dispensary) is focused on herbal dispensing of prescription including Paozhi and relevant techniques. Students learn about the theories that underpin and enable the safe application of Chinese herbal dispensing skills, including ethical and legal issues, policy and guidelines, botany, taxonomy and zoology, basic herbal processing, and interactions between herbal and pharmaceutical medicines. Learning focus is on performing the duties of a dispenser in an active clinic and Paozhi lab. Under dispensary supervision, students manage the preparation and processing of herbs and the dispensing of prescriptions. In the Paozhi lab, students practice Paozhi techniques in accordance with Australian regulations and the SUSMP. Students are taught to constantly reference TGA and CMBA guidelines on the use of herbs and the management and reporting of adverse events.
Additionally, this unit involves 100 hours of clinical practice as a Level 3 ‘Clinic Assistant’. Students undertake 70 hours in the SITCM teaching clinic, and a maximum of 30 hours may be undertaken in an approved external TCM clinic(s). Students gain supervised experience in acupuncture, herbal medicine treatments, herbal dispensary and Paozhi. Throughout their clinical practice hours students consolidate their commitment to the reporting of adverse events, the implementation of appropriate first aid measures when required, prompt transfer to medical services where necessary, and appreciation of Australia’s multi-cultural/multi-racial healthcare context.
|Learning outcomes||On successful completion of this unit students will be able to:
a. Explain the historical development of Wen Bing theory, what distinguishes Shang Han theory from Wen Bing theory, the similarities and differences between the four phases (Wei; Qi; Ying; Xue) and the San Jiao classifications of Wen Bing.
b. Analyse the transmission of pathogens in Wen Bing development, its specific diagnostic methods, and the cautions and contraindication required when treating patients with Wen Bing.
c. Evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of key Wen Bing diseases (Feng Wen, Chun Wen, Shu Wen, Shi Wen, Fu Shu, Qiu Zao) including aetiology, pathogenesis, syndrome identification, selection of formulae, components and modifications.
d. Demonstrate procedures involved in the management of an herbal dispensary (managing raw herbs, granules, poultice herb including storage, labelling, inventory control, contamination control and hygiene, record keeping, and patient instruction).
e. Describe the aims, requirements, and methods of general herbal preparation (Pao Zhi); the basic knowledge about botany, taxonomy and zoology, and recent developments in herbal preparation methods; the interaction between herbal and pharmaceutical medicines; and restricted and scheduled herbs as well as their use in accordance with Australian regulations and the SUSMP (Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons).
f. Demonstrate herbal preparation of Dry stir frying, stir frying with solid/liquid adjuvants, Blast frying, Calcination, Roasting, Steaming, Boiling and Water-refining.
g. Demonstrate competency in patient’s management including conducting interviews and examinations using professional communication; accurately reporting and synthesizing information; reasoning for diagnosis; treating patients with Chinese medicine, monitoring progress and providing advice and/or education.
h. Demonstrate adherence to relevant NSQHS Standards and CMBA codes and guidelines for safe clinical practice including: reporting of adverse events and incidents, necessary referral, infection control and prevention, self- and/or peer-assessment, risk management and cultural safety within the Australian healthcare context.
|Assessment||Flow Chart (5%)
Case Study Analysis (25%)
Practical Test (15%)
Clinical Assessment (25%)
Final Examination (30%)
|Prescribed Textbooks/Readings||* The prescribed and recommended readings are subject to annual review.
Wen Bing Xue:
Lai, S. C., Chen, K. M., Chang, Y. H., & Lee, H. H. (2008). Comparative efficacies of albendazole and the Chinese herbal medicine long-dan-xie-gan-tan, used alone or in combination, in the treatment of experimental eosinophilic meningitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 102(2), 143-150. doi: 10.1179/136485908X252304
Li, Y. Q., Li, J., & Fang, C. X. (2006). Inhibitory effects of anti-SARS traditional Chinese medicines on the UV irradiation of λ –lysogen. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 34(1), 147-155. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X06003710
Liu, G. (2005). Warm pathogen diseases: A clinical guide (Revised ed.). Seattle: Eastland Press.
Liu, J. L., Pei, T. L., Mu, J. X., Zheng, C. L., Chen, X. T., …Wang, Y. H. (2016). Systems pharmacology uncovers the multiple mechanisms of xijiao dihuang decoction for the treatment of viral hemorrhagic fever. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016, article ID 9025036, 17 pages. doi: 10.1155/2016/9025036
Tian, J., An, X. J., Fu, M. Y., Wang, Q. W. (2016). Promising effects of Chinese traditional treatment for child typhoid complicated by myocarditis. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 12(6), 3557-3560. doi: 10.3892/etm.2016.3803
Wei, J., Ni, J., Wu, T., Chen, X., Duan, X., …Zhou, L. (2006). A systematic review of Chinese medicinal herbs for acute bronchitis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12(2), 159-169
Zhao, P., Yang, H. Z., Lv, H. Y., & Wei, Z. M. (2014). Efficacy of lianhuaqingwen capsule compared with oseltamivir for influenza A virus infection: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 20(2), 25-30.
Zandi, K., Lim, T. H., Rahim, N. A., Shu, M., H., Teoh, B. T., …Abubakar, S. (2013). Extract of scutellaria baicalensis inhibits dengue virus replication. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13:91. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-91
Chan, K. (2003). Some aspects of toxic contaminants in herbal medicines. Chemosphere, 52(9), 1361-1371. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00471-5
Davey, M. (2017, February 6). Herbal medicines can have dangerous side effects, research reveals. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/feb/06/herbal-medicines-can-have-dangerous-side-effects-research-reveals
Huang, S. H., Chen, C. C., Lin, C. M., & Chiang, B. H. (2008). Antioxidant and flavor properties of Angelica sinensis extracts as affected by processing. Journal of food composition and analysis, 21(5), 402-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.02.005
Sionneau, P. (1995). Pao Zhi: An introduction to the use of processed Chinese medicinals. Blue Poppy Press.
Therapeutic Goods Administration. (n.d.). University student educational materials. https://www.tga.gov.au/node/3866
Upton, R. (2011). American herbal pharmacopoeia: Botanical pharmacognosy-microscopic characterization of botanical medicines. CRC Press.
Yoshikawa, M., Yamaguchi, S., Kunimi, K., Matsuda, H., Okuno, Y., Yamahara, J., & Murakami, N. (1994). Stomachic principles in ginger. III. An anti-ulcer principle, 6-gingesulfonic acid, and three monoacyldigalactosylglycerols, gingerglycolipids A, B, and C, from Zingiberis Rhizoma originating in Taiwan. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 42(6), 1226-1230. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.42.1226